Medical Glossary Decoded

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What exactly does “acute abdomen” mean?

An acute abdomen is a sign that a patient may be experiencing a serious medical condition and should seek immediate medical attention. An acute abdomen may be caused by a problem with an abdominal organ, such as appendicitis (inflammation of the appendix), cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder), a perforated ulcer in the intestine, or a ruptured spleen.

What exactly is the ABR test?

A test of the auditory brainstem response. An automated test for evaluating both the hearing and the functioning of the brain (neurological) that is carried out by attaching wires to the skin around the ear.

What exactly is achlorhydria, then?

Hydrochloric acid deficiency in the digestive juices that are secreted in the stomach.

What exactly is a torn ACL?

An injury to the knee that affects the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a ligament that connects the upper part of the thigh bone to the upper part of the larger bone in the lower leg.

What exactly is an allergy?

An immune system response to the presence of foreign substances. The immune system is the body’s primary line of defence against infectious agents.

Amnesia: what exactly is it?

A deficit in memory or an absence of memory altogether. When someone has antegrade amnesia, they do not remember things that happened after a traumatic event, but they do remember things that happened before the event. Retrograde amnesia is when someone does not remember things that happened before an event.

What exactly is the field of anatomy?

Anatomy is the study of the human or animal body through direct observation, the inspection or dissection of dead specimens, the inspection of microscopic specimens, and the study of textbooks.

What exactly is a biopsy?

The taking of a small piece of tissue for the purpose of analysing it under a microscope in order to look for signs of abnormalities such as cancer cells.

What precisely is a bed sore?

A painful, reddish area of degenerating and ulcerated skin caused by pressure and lack of movement, and made worse by exposure to urine or other irritants on skin. Pressure and lack of movement can cause pressure ulcers.

What exactly is the Blister?

It is a collection of fluid that is found underneath the top layer of skin and is also known as a bleb or bulla. Blisters can be caused by a wide variety of factors, including but not limited to burns, friction forces, and skin diseases.

Just what is the BMI?

BMI is an abbreviation for “body mass index.” The individual’s weight, expressed in kilograms (kg), divided by the square of their height, measured in meters (m).

What exactly is the “bone marrow”?

The spongy tissue that fills the cavities of bones contains immature and mature blood cells, such as white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. This tissue is responsible for the production of blood.

What exactly is this bradycardia?

A slow heart rate, which is typically defined as having less than 60 beats per minute, can be dangerous.

What exactly is a bypass?

An operation in which an existing passageway is literally bypassed in order to create a new pathway. The original passageway may be diseased or blocked.

What exactly is the Bronchus?

The large tube that extends from the terminal end of the trachea into the pulmonary arteries and veins.

What exactly is the fear of bacilli?

An irrational and obsessive-compulsive dread of bacilli (bacteria).
A phobia is an excessive and irrational fear that, if left untreated, can lead to avoidance and panic.
Phobias are a type of anxiety disorder that affects a significant portion of the general population.

What exactly is bariatrics, then?

A branch of medicine that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of obesity, which may include dietary and nutritional adjustments, physical activity, behavioural and lifestyle adjustments, and even surgical procedures.

What is Belching?

A normal action that involves releasing air that has accumulated in the stomach through the mouth in order to relieve distention caused by the accumulation of air in the stomach.

What exactly is calcinosis?

Calcium salts have a tendency to deposit themselves in an abnormal manner in body tissues. Calcifications in the skin as a result of scleroderma and calcifications in the muscles as a result of polymyositis are two examples.

What precisely is a calorie?

A measure of the amount of energy contained in food. Instead of the more accurate and scientific term kilocalorie, the word calorie is the one that is most commonly used.

What does it mean to have carotid artery?

The two major arteries that are located in the front of the neck and are responsible for carrying blood to the brain from the heart are called the carotid arteries. Each side of the neck contains one of the two common carotid arteries: the right on the right and the left on the left. These arteries are responsible for the majority of the blood supply to the head and neck when combined.

What exactly is this cellulitis?

Cellulitis is an infection of the skin and the tissues directly underneath the skin that is caused by bacteria and can spread quickly.

What precisely is the cholecyst?

This is a different name for the organ known as the gallbladder. The word “cholecyst” is used less frequently in modern times but can still be found in words such as “cholecystectomy,” which refers to the removal of the gallbladder.

What exactly are cilia?

The fine hairlike projections that can be found on cells, such as those found in the respiratory tract, that move in unison and help remove fluids and particles from the body.

What exactly is a colon?

The long, coiled, tube-like organ that extracts water from the food that has been digested. The remaining matter travels from the colon to the rectum and then the anus before being expelled from the body in the form of stools.

Colostrum: what exactly is it?

A sticky fluid that can be white or yellow in colour and is secreted by the breasts during the second half of a woman’s pregnancy and for the first few days after the baby is born, just before the breasts begin to produce breast milk. It contains a high level of protective antibodies, which strengthen the immune system of a newborn.

What exactly is COPD?

COPD is an abbreviation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This term refers to any disease or condition that consistently prevents air from entering the lungs. Cigarette smoking is frequently linked to the development of COPD.

What exactly is cyanosis?

A bluish discoloration that can be seen on the skin as well as the mucous membranes that occurs when there is not enough oxygen in the blood.

What is debilitate?

To enfeeble or weaken. A patient’s condition may worsen over time if they have a disease that is chronic and progressive.

Defibrillator: what exactly is it?

A device that delivers electrical shocks to the patient in order to restore a normal heartbeat in the event that the patient has an abnormal heart rhythm.

What exactly is a deformity?

a deviation from the typical proportions or form of an anatomical structure.

What exactly is being dehydrated?

An abnormally large amount of water is lost from the body, which can even cause shock. Dehydration is a potential complication of diseases of the digestive tract like vomiting and diarrhea that affect patients.

What is delirium?

A sudden state characterised by severe confusion and rapid changes in brain function, which is occasionally accompanied by hallucinations and hyperactivity.

Why do people feel depressed?

A disorder of the body, mood, and thoughts that impacts how a person eats, sleeps, thinks, and feels about herself or himself.

What exactly is meant by “descending aorta”?

The portion of the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body, known as the descending aorta is the portion of the aorta that travels down through the chest and the abdomen.

What exactly is the process of dialysis?

Dialysis is a process that uses a machine to remove waste products and excess fluid from the body. When the kidneys are unable to filter the blood effectively enough, a patient will need to undergo dialysis.

What is dizziness?

A sensation similar to that of dizziness and imbalance that can have many different causes, such as disturbances in the vision, the brain, the balance (vestibular) system of the inner ear, or the gastrointestinal system.

What exactly is a DOTS?

Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course is what DOTS is abbreviated as. DOTS is a method that can effectively treat tuberculosis in a short amount of time, minimising the risk of both defaulters and relapses.

What exactly is ECMO?

oxygenation of extracellular membranes (ECMO). This is a life support system that pumps blood through an oxygenating system in order to keep the patient alive. This is very similar to a heart-lung machine, which is used during open heart surgery to take over the work that the heart and lungs would normally do.

>What exactly is an ectomy?

The extraction of something through surgical means. A lumpectomy, for instance, refers to the surgical removal of a lump; a tonsillectomy, on the other hand, refers to the removal of the tonsils; and an appendectomy, to the removal of the appendix.

What is meant by the term ectopic pregnancy?

A pregnancy that is taking place in a location other than the uterus. It is possible for the fertilized egg to implant and grow in a location other than the uterine lining, but this is highly unlikely.

What exactly is an edoema?

The swelling of soft tissues that occurs as a result of the accumulation of excess fluid. The lower legs and feet are typically the areas of the body in which edoema is most noticeable later in the day.

Who or what is ELISA?

ELIS, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, is a type of rapid immunochemical test that involves an enzyme and can be used to measure a wide variety of bodily fluids.

What specifically is elliptocytosis?

A disease that affects the blood that is characterized by red blood cells that have an elliptical shape and possibly results in the breakdown of red blood cells (hemolysis) and anemia.

What exactly is the embolism?

Blockage of a blood vessel caused by a foreign substance or a blood clot that has travelled through the bloodstream and become lodged in a blood vessel, thereby obstructing the blood vessel.

What exactly is an embryo?

An organism that is still in the beginning stages of growth and differentiation. This stage lasts from the beginning of the third month of pregnancy until fertilization.

Where is the facial nerve located?

The seventh cranial nerve is the one that controls the face. It provides the muscles that control facial expressions with energy.

To what does factor X refer?

A coagulation factor is a substance that is present in blood and is necessary for the normal process of blood clotting. The liver is responsible for the production of factor X, which in turn requires vitamin K.

What precisely is fascia?

A thin layer of connective tissue that lies just below the surface of the skin and separates the various layers of tissue from one another. Fascia also encloses muscles.

What exactly is an embolism of fat?

A condition in which fatty tissue enters the bloodstream and then travels to a blood vessel, where it becomes lodged and eventually obstructs blood flow.

What exactly is a fibula?

The more diminutive of the two bones that make up the lower leg. The bony prominence on the outside of the ankle is created by the tip of the fibula.

What exactly is the flail chest?

A condition that develops when a sufficient number of ribs are broken, typically as the result of a crush injury. When you breathe in, the chest wall moves inward, rather than outward, and when you breathe out, it moves the other way around.

What exactly is a foramen?

A natural opening. Foramen are typically openings that are found in bone, but they can also be openings that are found in other types of tissue, such as the foramen ovale that is found in the heart.

What exactly is the fugue state?

A state of altered consciousness in which a person is able to move around and even speak, but is not completely aware of what is going on around them.

Galactose can be described as what exactly?

Milk contains a certain type of sugar.

What is gallbladder?

The bile that is produced by the liver is stored in this organ, which is shaped like a pear and is located below the liver. During and after eating a meal high in fat, the gallbladder will contract, forcing bile out of the bile ducts and into the intestines, where it will aid in the digestion process.

What exactly is a gastroscope?

A light-emitting, bendable instrument that is inserted through the mouth and oesophagus in order to view the stomach. The term “gastroscope” refers to an endoscopic device that is used to remove tissue from the stomach.

What precisely is glaucoma?

A typical eye condition in which the intraocular pressure within the eye rises to a level that is higher than what is considered to be normal. In the absence of treatment, it can cause damage to the optic nerve, which can result in impaired vision or even total blindness.

What is gluten?

A protein that can be found in wheat as well as other grains. Gluten can be found in a wide variety of foods, including soups, salad dressings, processed foods, and natural flavorings, among other things.

What exactly is this gynephobia?

An abnormal, irrational, and unshakeable fear and avoidance of females. Patients who have this condition experience anxiety despite being aware that there is no real danger to them.

What exactly is meant by “great saphenous vein”?

It is the larger of the two saphenous veins, which are the principal veins that run up the leg near the surface.

What is meant by the term “habitual abortion”?

A loss of pregnancy that occurs in three or more pregnancies in a row.

What exactly is it that we hallucinate?

It is an experience in which a person is able to see, hear, smell, taste, or feel something that is not actually present in the environment.

Which hand do you write with?

The practice of performing most manual tasks with one hand rather than both. Right handedness refers to the preference of using one’s right hand for most manual tasks, whereas left handedness refers to the preference of using one’s left hand for those tasks.

What exactly is haploid?

A collection of chromosomes that has only one copy of each of the two chromosomes that make up a pair. In humans, both the sperm and the egg are haploid, which means that each contains 23 chromosomes.

What exactly is acid reflux?

A sensation of discomfort, burning, and pain that occurs in waves behind the breastbone (sternum) and travels up towards the neck. In most cases, the cause is gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which is characterized by the regurgitation of stomach acid into the esophagus.

What precisely is a hematoma?

A blood-filled swelling that occurs locally and is caused by a rupture in the wall of a blood vessel. The rupture may occur on its own, as in the case of an aneurysm, or it may be the result of an injury.

Just what exactly is a hemorrhage?

the abnormal flow of blood, also known as bleeding.

What exactly is the heparin?

A medication that prevents blood from clotting or coagulating. Heparin is an effective tool for reducing the risk of thromboembolic complications (clots that travel from their site of origin through the blood stream to clog up another vessel).

What exactly are hiccups?

An extraordinary type of respiratory movement known as a hiccup is characterized by an abrupt inspiration (air intake) brought on by an involuntary contraction of the diaphragm, which is then followed by a closure of the glottis (the vocal apparatus of the larynx).

What exactly is an icterus?

is a synonym for the medical term jaundice.

What exactly does idiopathic mean?

The cause of which is unknown. Idiopathic disease is a term that can be applied to any illness for which the cause cannot be determined.

What is the science of immunology?

The study of the immune system in its entirety, including its structure and function, as well as diseases that affect the immune system, blood banking, immunisation, and organ transplantation.

What precisely is the induration?

Contraction of soft tissue in one particular area of the body.

Infarction refers to what exactly.

This is a region where tissue has died as a result of a lack of oxygen in the immediate area.

Infectivity refers to what exactly?

The number of people who are exposed to an infectious agent but do not end up getting sick as a result of that exposure.

Inflammation what exactly is that?

A localized reaction that can be caused by an infection, irritation, or injury and manifests as redness, warmth, swelling, and pain in the affected area.

What exactly is sleeplessness?

The condition of inadequate or poor-quality sleep due to a number of factors, such as difficulty falling asleep, waking up frequently during the night with difficulty returning to sleep, waking up too early in the morning, or unrefreshing sleep.

What exactly is this jaundice?

A discoloration of the skin and the whites of the eyes caused by an abnormally high concentration of the bile pigment bilirubin in the blood. The discoloration spreads to other tissues as well as the body’s fluids.

What is jet lag?

As a result of rapid air travel through multiple time zones, some people experience a temporary disorder known as jet lag, which manifests itself as fatigue, insomnia, and other symptoms.

What exactly does “joint aspiration” mean?

A medical procedure that involves extracting joint fluid from the affected joint using a sterile needle and syringe.

What is jugular vein?

Blood is drained from the head, brain, face, and neck through the jugular veins, which are located in the neck. This blood is then carried to the cardiac chambers.

What are the jogger’s nails known as?

On the toenails, there are very tiny white spots that are semicircular in shape. The white spots on the nails are a sign of damage to the matrix, which is located at the base of the nail

Where do you get jaw?

The moveable connection between the bones that make up the lower jaw (the mandible) and the bone that sits directly above the mouth (the maxilla).

What exactly is the jenner approach?

The development of resistance to a disease through the administration of an attenuated strain of the virus that is responsible for the disease. Also called jennerization.

What is kalemia?

The level of potassium that is present in the blood. Although it is the origin of the terms for abnormally high blood potassium levels (hyperkalemia) and low blood potassium levels (kalemia), the word “kalemia” is not commonly used in modern times (hypokalemia).

What precisely is the keratectomy?

A portion of the cornea is surgically removed. Excision via surgery or removal with a laser are both viable options for this procedure.

What exactly is keratitis?

corneal inflammation or irritation. Keratitis can be brought on by an abrasion, an infection, or even underlying diseases like Sjogren’s syndrome.

What exactly is the kneecap?

The patella is the name of the small bone that sits directly in front of the kneecap. There is a small bone called the patella that is situated within the tendon of insertion of the quadriceps muscle.

What is krukenberg tumor?

A tumour of the ovary that is caused by the spread of metastatic cancer from another part of the digestive tract, most commonly from the stomach.

What exactly are the knee ligaments?

Strong and elastic bands of tissue called ligaments connect one bone to another bone in the skeleton. They lend the joint both strength and stability, which allows it to function properly.

What is klebsiella?

A group of bacteria that, while they normally reside in the intestinal tract, have the potential to cause infections elsewhere, most notably urinary tract infections and pneumonia. In hospitals, Klebsiella are a common pathogen that leads to the development of infections.

Can you explain kidney stone to me?

A stone that is located in the kidney or one that began in the kidney but has moved further down in the urinary tract. Pain in the groyne, flank, or abdomen is often a symptom of kidney stones, which are a common cause of blood in the urine.

What does it mean to have labile diabetes?

A form of diabetes in which a person’s blood glucose (sugar) level frequently and rapidly fluctuates, either from a high to a low level or from a low level to a high level. Alternately referred to as “brittle diabetes” or “unstable diabetes.”

What exactly are lacrimations?

shedding tears, or shedding more tears than is typical for one’s age or situation (for example, as a result of eye injury or irritation).

What exactly is laryngitis, then?

Laryngitis is an inflammation of the voice box. Infections with viruses are typically the root cause of this condition. In these instances, additional symptoms, including a sore throat, cough, difficulty swallowing, and fever, typically manifest themselves.

What does the larynx do?

An organ in the neck that has the shape of a tube and contains the vocal cords. About two inches, or five centimeters, is the length of the larynx. It is a component of the respiratory system and can be found in the space in between the trachea and the pharynx.

What exactly is LASIK?

Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis is an abbreviation that stands for laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis. This is a type of laser eye surgery that is designed to change the shape of the cornea in order to eliminate or reduce the need for glasses and contact lenses in cases of severe short sightedness.

What exactly is poisoning from lead?

Acute or chronic poisoning caused by the body’s absorption of lead or any of its salts. Lead poisoning can be caused by ingestion of either pure lead or lead salts. Lead poisoning is a health risk that can result in mental retardation, behavioral issues, and damage to the brain. It is a result of exposure to lead in the environment.

What exactly is leptin?

A hormone that plays an important role in the regulation of body fat and is primarily produced by adipocytes, also known as fat cells. The hormone leptin communicates with parts of the brain that regulate behaviour and hunger, and it tells those parts of the brain when the body has had enough to eat.

What precisely is the macrobiota?

The larger living organisms of a region that can be observed with the unaided human eye.

What exactly is a macrolide?

Antibiotics belonging to the erythromycin class include Biaxin, Clarithromycin, and Erythromycin.

Where do macrophages come from?

A category of white blood cell that actively consumes foreign substances. The immune system’s response to foreign invaders in the body, such as infectious microorganisms, is orchestrated largely by macrophages, which play a pivotal role in this response.

>What is malaria?

Malaria is an infectious disease that is caused by protozoan parasites that are a member of the Plasmodium family and can be passed on to humans through the bite of the Anopheles mosquito, a contaminated needle, or through blood transfusions.

What exactly is undernutrition?

A condition that can be used to refer to any state in which the body does not receive enough nutrients for it to function properly is called malnutrition.

What exactly are mast cells?

a type of granulocyte that can be found in connective tissue but whose normal function is unknown. This type of granulocyte is frequently damaged when an allergic reaction occurs. Histamine is one of the powerful chemicals that can be released into the surrounding tissues and blood when a mast cell is damaged.

What exactly is the measles?

An acute viral disease that is extremely contagious and can cause symptoms such as fever, cough, runny nose, red eyes, and a rash that spreads across the skin.

Melatonin: what exactly is it?

A hormone that is secreted by the pineal gland and is intimately involved in the process of controlling the periods of time spent sleeping and awake.

What exactly is the metabolism?

The various biochemical reactions that take place inside of living organisms. Anabolism refers to the process by which substances are built up, while catabolism describes the breakdown of substances.

What exactly is the naloxone?

A substance that counteracts the effects of opiates like morphine. Naloxone is a pure opiate antagonist that prevents or reverses the effects of opioids such as respiratory depression, sedation, and hypotension. It does this by binding to and blocking the effects of opiates.

What exactly is a nasogastric tube?

This is the opening that leads from the nasal cavity to the abdominal cavity. This is abbreviated as NG.

What exactly does natriuretic mean?

The excretion of an abnormally high volume of sodium through the kidneys and into the urine.

What exactly is a queasy stomach?

stomach cramps and the strong desire to throw up. There are a number of different things that can bring on feelings of nausea, including systemic illnesses (like the flu), certain medications, pain, and inner ear diseases.

What precisely is a neonate?

A baby that has just been born, more specifically a baby that is less than a month old.

What exactly does neurogenic mean?

originating in the nervous system or the nerves themselves. Pain that originates in the nerves, as opposed to pain that originates in muscles or bones, for instance, is referred to as neurogenic pain.

What is the field of neurology?

Neurology is the branch of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of conditions that affect the nervous system, which is comprised of the brain, the spinal cord, and the nerves.

Niacin is short for nicotinic acid.

Nicotinic acid is a B-complex vitamin that belongs to the B3 group. Pellagra is a condition that occurs when an inadequate amount of niacin is consumed in a person’s diet.

What exactly is the nicotine?

An alkaloid, also known as a chemical containing nitrogen, that can be produced synthetically or naturally by the tobacco plant. The pharmacologic effects of nicotine are significant (including increased heart rate, heart stroke volume, and oxygen consumption by the heart muscle).

What exactly is obesity?

An extreme excess of one’s normal weight. When compared to their ideal weight, a person is considered obese if they are more than 20% heavier than they should be. When determining a person’s ideal weight, height, age, gender, and body build are all factors that should be considered.

What exactly is obstetrics?

The branch of medicine concerned with the management of pregnancies, labor, and the postpartum period (the time after delivery).

What exactly is odynophagia?

Esophageal disease is a common cause of the discomfort that occurs when trying to swallow food or liquids.

Oliguria: what exactly is it?

fewer trips to the toilet than usual.

What exactly is the omentum?

A layer of subcutaneous fat that lies beneath the peritoneum. The greater omentum is dangling in front of the intestines and is attached to the edge of the stomach that is at the very bottom.

Oncologist: what exactly is that?

A physician who has received additional training to diagnose and treat cancer patients.

What exactly is an oocyte?

An embryonic cell that will eventually become a female germ cell.

What exactly is an optometrist?

A practitioner who provides primary eye and vision care, performs eye examinations to detect vision problems, and prescribes corrective lenses to correct those problems. also known as an ophthalmologist.

What do you mean by “pacemaker”?

A device that controls the heartbeat by stimulating it with electrical impulses in order to achieve the desired rhythm.

What precisely is the pachyderma?

Pachyderm-like thick skin, resembling that of a pachyderm (an elephant, rhinoceros, or hippopotamus). Pachyderma is a skin condition that can be caused by a number of different medical conditions, including lymphedema that is chronic.

Can you explain pachyonychia to me?

A fingernail or toenail that is abnormally thick is referred to as an elephant nail.

What does “palate” mean?

The part of the roof of the mouth that is composed of bone in the front (the hard palate), and muscle in the back the soft palate.

What exactly is palliation?

To treat a disease in a palliative manner means to alleviate its symptoms somewhat, but not to completely cure it.

What exactly is the pancreas?

An organ that is sponge-like and tube-shaped, measuring about 6 inches in length, and is situated in the region of the abdomen that lies behind the stomach. It also contains cells that secrete insulin, in addition to digestive enzymes, and these cells.

What exactly is this paralysis?

Inability to move of one’s own free will (motor function). Partial paralysis, also known as palsy, is a form of paralysis that affects only one muscle or limb; total paralysis, on the other hand, affects all of the muscles in the body.

What exactly are parotids?

The pair of salivary glands that are located in front of the ears in most mammals.

What precisely is a paroxysm?

This is a particularly severe onslaught of symptoms. It is possible that this is due to the sudden onset of symptoms or the acute exacerbation (the sudden worsening) of symptoms that have already been present.

What does the term “pasteurization” mean?

The process of treating food by heating it to a certain point in order to kill pathogenic (disease-causing) organisms while maintaining the food’s flavour and quality.

What precisely is the qinghaosu?

A Chinese herb that is sometimes referred to as sweet wormwood and from which the antimalarial substance artemisinin is extracted.

What is quadriceps?

The term “quadriceps” can technically be used to refer to any muscle that has four heads, but in common usage, it refers to the muscle that is located on the front of the thigh.

What is quadriparesis?

Muscle wasting in all four limbs, including the arms and the legs, as is seen in patients with muscular dystrophy.

What is quadriplegic?

The inability to move any of the body’s limbs, including the arms and legs, as a result of a severe injury to the spinal cord.

What exactly is a quarantine?

A period of confinement in order to prevent the infection from spreading to other people. Before the development of antibiotics and other medications, quarantine was one of the few preventative measures that could be taken to stop the spread of infectious diseases.

What exactly is accelerating?

The first time during pregnancy that the mother feels the baby move. also known as “first movement.”

What is quinine?

The Peruvian Indian word “kina,” which refers to the cinchona tree and means “bark of the tree,” is where the name “quinine” originated from. Quinine was the first antimalarial medication.


Rabies is an infection caused by a virus that attacks the central nervous system and has the potential to be fatal. There are a number of ways in which humans can contract rabies, one of which is through the bites of infected dogs from dogs that themselves have rabies. Rabies is carried by wild animals, in particular bats and raccoons.


Radiology is the branch of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of disease through the use of ionizing radiation. Other than that


Eruption of the skin is the medical term for this condition. Rashes can have a variety of causes, including contact with irritants, hormonal cycles, allergic reactions, and underlying medical conditions.


RAST stands for the radioallergosorbent test. This is an allergy test that is performed on a blood sample. The RAST test is used to determine whether or not an individual is allergic to a particular substance.


RBCs are the cells in the blood that are responsible for transporting oxygen throughout the body. Erythrocytes are another name for red blood cells, which are also sometimes called red corpuscles.


The medical term for the phenomenon in which liquid from the stomach travels upward into the oesophagus.

Renal stone

Renal is a medical term that refers to the kidney. Stones that form in the kidneys are referred to as renal stones (or lower down in the urinary tract). Pain in the groyne, flank, or abdomen is often a symptom of renal stones, which are a common cause of blood in the urine.


The nerve layer that lines the back of the eye is called the retina. It is responsible for light perception and generates impulses that are carried along the optic nerve and into the brain.


An examination of the representational oligonucleotide microarray. A technique for identifying genetic differences between any two different DNA samples in order to identify genomic aberrations.

What is sacrum?

The large bone at the base of the spine, which is made up of fused sacral vertebrae.

What is scalp ringworm?

A superficial fungal infection of the skin, affecting the scalp. Also known as ringworm.

What is secretin?

A hormone that is made by glands in the small intestine whose primary function is the stimulation of pancreatic secretion.

What is sigmoid colon?

In human anatomy, this is the lower colon (the lower portion of the large bowel).

What is sinus arrhythmia?

The normal increase in heart rate that occurs during inspiration (when you breathe in).

What is swollen tongue?

swelling, or enlargement, of the tongue. A swollen tongue can be a symptom of glossitis, an inflammation of the tongue that can be caused by infections, local irritation or burns, and allergic reactions.

What is surgery?

The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or injury. Surgery can involve cutting, abrading, suturing, transplanting or otherwise physically changing body tissues and organs.

What is sunburn?

Sunburn is an inflammation of the skin that develops in response to exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or from tanning beds that emit UV radiation.

What is sternum?

The long flat bone in the upper middle of the front of the chest. The sternum joins with the cartilages of the first seven ribs and with the clavicle (collarbone) on either side.

What is tachypnea?

Abnormally fast breathing.

What is tetanus?

An often fatal infectious disease that is caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani, which usually enters the body through a puncture, a cut, or an open wound.

What is tabes dorsalis?

Slowly progressive degeneration of the spinal cord that occurs in the final phase of syphilis a decade or more after originally contracting the infection.

What is thorax?

The part of the body that is located between the abdomen and the neck. Within the thorax are the lungs, the heart, and the first section of the aorta. Also known as chest.

What is thyroid?

A butterfly shaped gland found at the front of the neck , that secretes the thyroxine hormone, a crucial hormone for body functions.

What is tonsils?

Small masses of lymphoid tissue at the back and on both sides of the throat.

What is tremor?

An abnormal, repetitive shaking movement of the body. Tremors have many causes and can be inherited, related to illnesses (such as thyroid disease), or caused by fever, hypothermia, drugs, or fear.

What is tuberculosis?

An infection caused by the bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Usually affects the lung , though it can involve other organs like the brain , kidney , spine etc.

What is turgor?

The degree of elasticity of skin, sometimes referred to as skin turgor. The assessment of skin turgor is used clinically to determine the extent of dehydration, or fluid loss, in the body.

What is typhoid fever?

An acute illness with fever , caused by infection with the bacterium Salmonella typhi. Typhoid fever has an insidious onset, with fever, headache, constipation, malaise, chills, and muscle pain.

What precisely is a URI?

An infection of the upper respiratory tract. Infection of the airways of the nose, throat, and/or bronchial tubes, which may occur alone or in combination.

What exactly is an ulcer?

A lesion that has been gradually wearing away at the skin or the mucous membrane. Ulcers can have a number of different origins, depending on where they are located.

What exactly is the ulna bone?

The longer and more substantial of the two long bones that make up the forearm. (The value closest to zero represents the radius.) The ulna is located on the side of the arm that corresponds to the side of the little finger.

What exactly does “urinary incontinence” mean?

Urinary incontinence is the unintentional loss of urine. The loss of voluntary control over the urinary sphincters, which results in an inability to keep urine contained in the bladder.

Can you explain ulocarcinoma to me?

Cancer of the gingiva (or gums). Chewing tobacco, also known as smokeless tobacco, is frequently mentioned in conjunction with this condition.

What exactly is ultrasonography?

This refers to sound waves with a high frequency. By utilizing specialized equipment, ultrasound waves are able to be reflected off of tissues. After that, the echoes are transformed into a picture that is known as a sonogram.

What exactly is the uvulitis?

Uvulitis refers to inflammation of the uvula. Uvulitis can be brought on by a variety of things, such as an infection with a virus, fungus, or bacteria; it can also be brought on by the adverse effects of certain medications.

What exactly are vaccines?

Microbial preparations consisting of microorganisms that have been killed or modified and have the ability to stimulate an immune response in the body. This immune response can help prevent future infection with microorganisms that are similar.

What is vagus nerve?

An important nerve that supplies nerve fiber to the pharynx (the throat), the larynx (the voice box), the trachea (the windpipe), the lungs, the heart, the oesophagus, and the intestinal tract, all the way up to the transverse portion of the colon.

What exactly is the ventilation?

The process by which air is moved between the lungs and the outside environment so that carbon dioxide and oxygen can be exchanged within the alveoli of the lungs (the tiny air sacs in the lungs).

Vernix: what is it?

A cheesy, white substance that serves to protect and cover the skin of a developing fetus. When a baby is born, vernix is still present on the skin all over the body.

What is virus?

A tiny infectious agent that can only replicate itself inside the cells of other organisms while they are alive. Viruses are capable of infecting all different kinds of living things, including animals, plants, and even microorganisms.

What exactly is the viremia?

The detection of a virus in the blood of an individual. Comparable to bacteremia (the presence of bacteria in the blood) and parasitemia, viremia is the presence of viruses in the blood (the presence of a parasite in the blood).

What exactly are the vocal cords?

One of the two thin muscle bands that can be found within the larynx. These muscles are responsible for the vibrations that produce the voice. Within the larynx, the vocal cords are arranged in the shape of a “V.”

What exactly is vitiligo?

A condition in which the skin gradually loses its colour as a result of the melanocytes, the cells responsible for producing the pigment melanin that gives the skin its colour, producing less pigment.

What exactly is the viscera?

The parts of the body that are located internally, more specifically the organs found in the chest (such as the heart and lungs) and the abdomen (as the liver, pancreas or intestines).

What exactly is wheezing?

A high-pitched whistling sound that can be heard in the chest when someone is breathing deeply. Wheezing is a symptom of asthma, which is characterized by constriction or narrowing of the airways.

Just what is the WBC?

These blood cells, which are also referred to by their other name, leukocytes, play a role in the process of protecting the body against infectious diseases as well as foreign invaders.

What is welt?

a red bump, ridge, or swelling of unbroken skin that can be brought to the surface by a stinging blow or by an allergic reaction to foods, drugs, or insect bites, such as in hives (urticaria).

What exactly is a wrist?

The portion of the hand that is located closest to the forearm and is made up of the carpal bones as well as the soft tissues that are associated with them.

What exactly is a womb?

The womb, also known as the uterus, is an organ that is pear-shaped and hollow. It is situated in the lower abdomen of a woman, between the bladder and the rectum.

What exactly is an injury called whiplash?

An injury to the neck that involves both hyperextension and flexion and is typically the result of the victim being struck from behind, such as by a moving vehicle in the course of a car accident.

What does it mean to waste

a slow but steady loss of weight that ultimately results in emaciation. as in an illness that causes wasting.

What exactly is an X-ray?

Radiation with a high energy output that is administered in high doses to treat cancer and in low doses to make images that assist in the diagnosis of diseases.

What exactly is the xanthoma?

Nodules in the skin that are yellowish and firm and often indicate an underlying disease such as diabetes or a disorder of fats or another condition.

What exactly is xerostomia, then?

The mouth is dry. Xerostomia can be linked to systemic diseases such as Sjogren’s syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis; alternatively, it can be a side effect of medication or the result of inadequate oral hygiene practices.

What exactly is xerosis?

A condition characterized by abnormally dry skin, mucous membranes, or conjunctiva (xerophthalmia).

What exactly is xanthelasma, then?

Plaques of a yellowish hue that are very small (1-2 mm) and slightly elevated on the surface of the skin of the upper or lower eyelids.

What exactly is xeroderma?

Skin that is abnormally dry. A deficiency in vitamin A, an overexposure to sunlight, a systemic illness (such as hypothyroidism or Sjogren’s syndrome), or medication can all lead to xeroderma. Xeroderma can also be caused by an overexposure to sunlight.

The xiphoid process is defined as.

The portion of the breastbone that is located lower down. The xiphoid process is characterized by a size range that extends from minuscule to several inches in length and serves no discernible purpose.

What exactly is an X link?

A gene that can be found on the X chromosome. A disorder that is X-linked is one that is linked to or caused by a gene that is located on the X chromosome.

What precisely is the Y chromosome?

In males, in addition to an X chromosome, the Y chromosome is the other sex chromosome that can be found.

Y-linkage: what exactly is that?

The existence of a gene on the Y chromosome in an individual.

Why do people get yellow fever?

An acute illness that is brought on by a virus that is known as a Flavivirus. When the viral infection is severe, it can lead to a high fever, bleeding into the skin, and the necrosis (death) of cells in the kidney and liver.

What is the element yttrium?

A rare elemental metal. In radiation therapy and certain immunotherapies, a radioactive form of yttrium is one of the substances utilized.

What exactly is yershiosis?

Yersiniosis enterocolitica is an infectious disease that is caused by the bacterium Yersinia enterocolitica.

Y chromatin: what exactly is it?

When cells that contain a Y chromosome are stained with the dye quinacrine, a brightly fluorescent body can be seen under the microscope in those cells. Quinacrine has a greater effect on the Y chromosome than it does on any other chromosome.

So, what exactly is the Z chromosome?

A chromosome that determines sexual orientation in some animals, like chickens, turkeys, and moths. In humans, males have the XY chromosome and females have the XX chromosome. However, in animals that have a Z chromosome, males have the ZZ chromosome and females have the WZ chromosome.

What exactly is this disease known as?

Recrudescence of epidemic typhus, also known as Brill-Zinsser disease, can occur years after the initial outbreak of the disease.

What is zona pellucida?

A robust membrane that wraps itself around an ovum as it develops inside an ovary and serves as a protective barrier. During the time that the egg is travelling through the fallopian tube, the membrane does not move from its position.

What exactly is this fear of animals?

A pathological and unrelenting dread of all kinds of animals.

What exactly is a zygote?

The cell that results from the combination of a male sex cell, known as a sperm, and a female sex cell, known as an egg (an ovum). During embryogenesis, the zygote transforms into the embryo.

The zygoma is, what is it?

The bone that projects forward from the side of the face to form the cheekbone.

What exactly is a ZIFT?

ZIFT is an abbreviation for “zygote intrafallopian transfer,” which describes a technique for treating infertility in which an egg that has been fertilized in vitro (outside of the body) is implanted into the fallopian tube of a woman.

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